By Mario Mikulincer PhD, Phillip R. Shaver PhD
New to This Edition:
*Reflects significant advances, together with hundreds of thousands of latest studies.
*Clarifies and extends the authors' influential version of attachment-system functioning.
*Cutting-edge content material on genetics and at the neural and hormonal substrates of attachment.
*Increased realization to the interaction between attachment and different behavioral platforms, akin to caregiving and sexuality.
*Expanded dialogue of attachment tactics in counseling and psychotherapy.
*Additional assurance of management, crew dynamics, and religion.
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Extra resources for Attachment in Adulthood, Second Edition: Structure, Dynamics, and Change
R. S. Weiss (1998) has made useful distinctions between what Bowlby called attachment and affiliation, and has done so even within the context of a particular relationship. An attachment interaction is one in which one person is threatened or distressed and seeks comfort and support from the other. An affiliation interaction is one in which both people are in a good mood, do not feel threatened, and have the goals of enjoying their time together or advancing common interests. Importantly, even within a particular relationship—say, between two sisters—there can be attachment interactions in which one sister (and not always the same one) is needy and the other is temporarily “stronger and wiser,” and there can be other, affiliative, interactions in which the two consider themselves to be equal.
These hypothetical circuits affect the monitoring and appraisal of threats and of attachment figure availability. We assume that all components and circuits in the model, not only the “choice” among secondary strategies for dealing with attachment figure unresponsiveness, can operate in the adult mind either consciously or unconsciously, and either deliberately or automatically. Moreover, these components and circuits can operate either in parallel, synchronously, or in conflicting ways at conscious and unconscious levels.
First, he or she is a target for proximity seeking. People tend to seek and benefit from proximity to their attachment figures in times 16 THE ATTACHMENT BEHAVIORAL SYSTEM of need. Second, an attachment figure serves as a safe haven in times of need—that is, he or she reliably provides protection, comfort, support, and relief. , activate other behavioral systems) in a safe environment. Based on this narrow definition of an attachment figure, a close relationship partner becomes such a figure only when he or she becomes (or is treated as) a safe have and secure base sought out in times of pain, distress, or danger, with the hope or expectation of receiving protection, comfort, and support.
Attachment in Adulthood, Second Edition: Structure, Dynamics, and Change by Mario Mikulincer PhD, Phillip R. Shaver PhD