By Ken Lodge
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Extra resources for Critical Introduction to Phonetics (Continuum Critical Introductions to Linguistics)
10 Uvular At the back end of the roof of the mouth, as a continuation of the velum, there is a small soft part that hangs down into the faucal opening to the pharynx. This is the uvula. It can be brought into contact with the extreme back part of the tongue to produce uvular sounds. (Note the difference in spelling between the noun uvula, with no r, and the adjective uvular, with one. 11 Pharyngeal As mentioned above, the back wall of the pharynx can be used as a point of contact by retracting the root of the tongue to enable the extreme back of it to touch the pharynx wall.
In English the lip-position is usually neutral; on the other hand, in French, where it occurs less often, but is likewise always unstressed, the lips are often rounded: [lepeKJ lepere 'the father', [sepas] jepense 'I think', [bwale] bois-le 'drink it'. Notice in one of the French examples there is a tilde [~] above one of the vowel symbols: [a]. This represents a nasal version of the vowel symbolized [a] above. It is important to remember that although we are focusing on the position of the tongue and lips in this section, the rest of the speech production mechanism that we looked at in the previous sections is not doing nothing.
G. [£ f £ ]. 2 Ejectives With the same starting point as for implosives it is possible to raise the larynx, in which case the trapped air is compressed. The build-up of pressure behind the supraglottal closure leads to its release, propelling the trapped air out of the mouth. Sounds produced in this way are called ejectives. Once again we must note that ejectives are neither voiced nor voiceless, and cannot be nasal. Although such sounds are usually stops, it is possible to release the complete closure slowly by removing the articulator only slightly so that local friction is produced, so we can have ejective stops and ejective fricatives.
Critical Introduction to Phonetics (Continuum Critical Introductions to Linguistics) by Ken Lodge