By George Platt Waller
Drafted whereas occasions have been clean in his brain in 1942–1943, Alabama-born American diplomat George Platt Waller's memoir chronicles his war-time event within the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. In bright prose, he recollects the outbreak of worldwide battle II in September 1939, the "Phony War," the German invasion of could 10, 1940, and the Wehrmacht profession. in detail concerned with the political and public lifetime of this small democratic kingdom, Waller didn't stick to Grand Duchess Charlotte and her govt into exile. as an alternative, he remained so long as he may possibly to witness and champion the Luxembourg humans, doing his most sensible to rescue the flood of refugees looking visas and asylum within the usa. Waller bitterly condemns the Nazi civilian management, its oppressive racial legislation, and its makes an attempt to annex the rustic to Germany below the banner of Heim ins Reich.
From his pivotal place as dean of the diplomatic neighborhood, consultant of the robust usa; and depended on confidant of leaders, executives, and electorate alike, Waller used to be aware about details from quite a lot of resources: executive, army, the church, the professions, the resistance, usual humans, and refugees. He narrates gripping money owed of person initiative and braveness and exposes the numerous reliable stumbling blocks to the well timed rescue of refugees. His observations shed new mild on lifestyles in Luxembourg from 1939 to 1941, while he was once eventually expelled from the country.
The editors' advent areas this short yet hugely major memoir within the context of Waller's family members heritage, schooling, and profession, together with his dramatic go back to Luxembourg at its liberation through American troops in 1944 and his participation within the Grand Duchy's postwar renaissance. broad annotations and images supplement the textual content.
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Extra resources for Defiant Diplomat George Platt Waller: American Consul in Nazi-Occupied Luxembourg, 1939-1941
ABOVE LEFT This overhead view shows Cavour surrounded by fuel oil, heavily damaged and half submerged with a severe list to starboard. All this damage was the result of a single torpedo hit on the starboard side under the No. 6-inch gun turret. Cavour was the only battleship of the three damaged at Taranto not to return to service. (Imperial War Museum) ABOVE RIGHT Taken by British aircraft after the November 11, 1940 air raid on the Italian fleet anchorage at Taranto, this view shows salvage operations already under way on Littorio, which was struck by three torpedoes in the attack.
British advantages in codebreaking, and the reduction of Axis pressure on Malta making it an offensive springboard for British interdiction operations, put severe pressure on the Italians’ ability to move supplies to Africa. Between July and December 1941, shipments to Africa dropped from 94 percent of cargoes reaching their destination during the first half of the year to 73 percent. Concurrent with the British interdiction of Italian convoys headed to Africa, the British had to keep Malta supplied.
On September 7 the Italians again sortied, this time to engage British Force H based at Gibraltar. No engagement ensued as Force H had headed into the Atlantic, not the Mediterranean. November 11, 1940, all six Italian battleships were at anchor in the naval base of Taranto in southern Italy. Such a target was too lucrative to ignore, and the British put into motion an operation to attack the Italian battle fleet with carrier-based aircraft. The base was heavily defended by antiaircraft guns, but no torpedo nets were in place and without radar the Italians had no warning of the approaching attackers.
Defiant Diplomat George Platt Waller: American Consul in Nazi-Occupied Luxembourg, 1939-1941 by George Platt Waller