By Anne David
Spoken via as many as 50 million humans in Afghanistan and Pakistan, Pashto contains a variety of greatly diverging kinds. the guts for complex examine of Language Pashto Grammar presents an outline of the language that's supported by way of examples offered in local orthography, Roman transcription, morpheme-by-morpheme glossing, and translation. it's designed as a first-rate reference paintings for either linguists and scholars of Pashto.
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Additional info for Descriptive Grammar of Pashto and its Dialects
The names for the letter include kəṛwāla and feli, meaning ‘verbal’, tazkir meaning ‘masculine’, and saqila meaning ‘heavy’. Some of the letters are used chiefly in Arabic loanwords, or in loanwords based on Arabic. The halwa he, for example, appears in Arabic loanwords which are spelled with this letter in Arabic, and in borrowings from Persian in which one of the morphemes is Arabic: /purharārat/ ‘ardent, emotional’, which is composed of a Persian prefix /pur/ ‘full’ and an Arabic root /harārat/ ‘heat’.
Native speakers from several dialect areas were consulted on issues ranging from basic pronunciation to the appropriate use of complex syntactic constructions. After providing detailed personal language background information, each speaker was recorded pronouncing single word examples from prescribed lists. Over the course of several sessions, the speaking tasks increased in complexity. Speakers were asked to provide complete paradigms and examples of usage. We were able to consult speakers about phenomena that were insufficiently or inconsistently described in the literature, asking for grammatical judgments about specific examples and more open-ended commentary on general issues.
1 Letters unique to Pashto Due to its particular consonant and vowel inventory, Pashto has innovated several letters not present in either Arabic or Persian. 7. 7: Pashto retroflex letters with panḍak ر س Pashto has innovated two letters employing a dot above and below and . 8. Further pronunciations of these letters, particularly in the Northwest dialects, are discussed in Chapter 4. 9 are based on and represent the affricates /ʦ/ and /ʣ/ in some dialects, but in others they have been simplified to the fricatives /s/ and /z/, as discussed in Chapter 4.
Descriptive Grammar of Pashto and its Dialects by Anne David