By Nele Reynders, Wim Dehaene
This booklet makes a speciality of expanding the energy-efficiency of digital units in order that moveable purposes could have an extended stand-alone time at the related battery. The authors clarify the energy-efficiency merits that ultra-low-voltage circuits supply and supply solutions to take on the demanding situations which ultra-low-voltage operation poses. An cutting edge layout technique is gifted, established, and proven by means of 4 prototypes in complex CMOS applied sciences. those prototypes are proven to accomplish excessive energy-efficiency via their winning performance at ultra-low provide voltages.
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Additional resources for Ultra-Low-Voltage Design of Energy-Efficient Digital Circuits
When variations on device parameters differ from one die to another. Technology foundries have quantified these inter-die variations by identifying process corners. The collective effect of process variations is lumped into their effect on nMOS and pMOS transistors : typical, fast or slow. The different corners are then the combination of these effects, with the first abbreviation pointing to the nMOS and the second to the pMOS transistor. 5 Vdd [V] Fig. 9 (a) Propagation delay of a regular-sized CMOS inverter as function of Vdd in all process corners.
1 shows the cross-section of a typical nMOS transistor when no voltages are applied. e. the source (S), drain (D), gate (G) and bulk (B) terminals. When a small positive gate-source voltage Vgs is applied, the holes in the region of the substrate below the oxide (also called the surface) are repelled from the gate, leaving behind positively charged immobile atoms. The resulting depletion region can be seen in Fig. 2a. The drain and source form two np junctions with the bulk. When the potential difference Vds between the drain and the source is positive, the reverse bias across the np junction of the drain is larger than the one across the source-bulk junction, thereby resulting in a deeper depletion region at the drain (see Fig.
E. Vgs exceeds the threshold voltage VT , the surface becomes attractive to electrons from the nC regions and the depletion region stops growing. Free electrons flow from the source to the drain and form an inversion layer or channel under the gate oxide. For Vds Ä Vgs VT , the voltage at any point in the channel is larger than the threshold voltage and the drain-source current Ids increases linearly with Vds . This is called the linear region of the transistor and is Fig. 1 Cross-section of a typical nMOS transistor a b Fig.
Ultra-Low-Voltage Design of Energy-Efficient Digital Circuits by Nele Reynders, Wim Dehaene